CHAPTER 2 - Culture


1.  What are the basic terms and concepts used in analyzing cultures?

2.  What is the relationship between culture and human evolution?

3.  Why is language central to the human ability to use cultture in adapting
    to environmental conditions.

4.  What is the difference between culture and civilizations?  What tendency
    to civilizations have to "export" their cultures to less powerful peoples?

5.  How do the concepts acculturaltion, assimilation, and accommodation explain what 
    happends when members of different cultures meet?

Internet Links:

The Unived Nations:
International Red Cross:
American Anthropology Association:
Amnesty International:
The Southern Institute at Tulane University:

Practice Exam Questions:

1.  Which of the following is a cultural product?
          a.  Homer's Iliad
          b.  a microwave overn
          c.  the Declaration of Independence
          d.  all of the above

2.  The ideas that support or justify norms are
          a.  values.
          b.  ideololgies.
          c.  technologies.
          d.  institutions.

3.  Laws forbidding murder and robbery are an example of
          a.  mores
          b.  folkways.
          c.  formal norms.
          d. both a and c.

4.  The originator of the theory of natural selection was
          a.  Edward O. Wilson.
          b.  Herbert Spencer.
          c.  Charles Darwin.
          d.  William Graham Summer.

5.  The view that it is impossible through intentional action to improve on
    the course of social evolution is known as
          a.  biological reductionism. 
          b.  social Darwinism.
          c.  creationsim.
          d.  ethnocentrism.

6.  According to sociobiologists, the incest taboo is
          a.  a cultural norm.
          b.  genetically programmed.
          c.  a folkway.
          d.  determined by legislation.

7.  The unique feature of human language is that 
          a.  words can be used as symbols for things and relationships.
          b.  it can be learned through observsation and imitation.
          c.  it can be used to express thoughts and ideas that can persist 
              after their originators are gone.
          d.  None of the above is unique to human language.

8.  The idea that language determines the possibility for thought and action
     in a culture is known as the 
          a.  linguistic-relativity hypothesis.
          b.  sociobiological hypothesis.
          c.  cross-cultural perspective.
          d.  ethnolinguistic perspective.

9.  The Europeans' belief that te Native Americans could benefit from the
    adoption of European cultural traits is an example of
          a.  ethnocentrism.
          b.  cultural relativity.
          c.  assimilation.
          d.  acculturation.

10.  An advanced culture like that of ancient Rome is termed
          a.  a cultural complex.
          b.  a subculture.
          c.  a civilization.
          d.  an empire.

11.  The process by which people incorporate norms and values from other
     cultures is termed
          a.  assimilation.
          b.  acculturation.
          c.  accommodation.
          d.  immigration.

12.  Within the United States, people of Cuban origin may be described as
          a.  civilization.
          b.  couterculture.
          c.  microculture.
          d.  subculture.

13.  When a subculture that challenges the accepted norms and values of the 
larger society established an alternative lifestyle, it is called a 
          a.  microculture.
          b.  counterculture.
          c.  protest culture.
          d.  social movement.

14.  When one culture is wiped out by another, which of the following is said
     have occured?
          a.  acculturation
          b.  assimilation
          c.  accomodation
          d.  none of the above.

15.  When a smaller, less powerful society is able to preserve the major features
     of its culture even after prolonged contact with another society, which of the
     following is said to have occurred?
          a.  acculturation
          b.  assimilation
          c.  accommodation
          d.  resistance

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