Chapter 3


1.  What are the basic terms and concepts that sociologists use in studying
    social structure?

2.  How and why do have human societies evolved from hunting-and-gathering
    bands to urban industrial nations?

3.  What is the difference between primary and secondary groups, role conflict,
    and role strain?

4.  What is the difference between an ascribed and an achieved status?

5.  What concepts organize sociological thinking about groups?

6.  What are the major principles of group interaction?

7.  What is a bureaucracy?

Internet Links

Bureau of Labor Statistics:
U.S. Department of Labor:
Sociological Timeline, University of Missouri:
Society for the Study of Symbolic Interaction:

Practice Exam Questions:

1.  Which of the following characteristics distinguishs a society from a
          A.  It is a set of individuals that can be counted.
          B.  It is organized in a cooperative manner.
          C.  It is made up of human beings.
          D.  All of the above.

2.  The number of statuses in human societies is
          A.  limited to approximately twenty.
          B.  determined when the society is established.
          C.  usually under 1000.
          D.  infinite.

3.  People who hold the same statuses may behave in different ways, depending 
    on how they perceive their society's 
          A.  social strucutre.
          B.  productive technologies.
          C.  role expectations.
          D.  stratification system.

4.  For the first million years of human evolution, humans engaged in
          A.  agriculture.
          B.  domestication of animals.
          C.  hunting and gathering.
          D.  industrial production.

5.  A horticultural society is characterized by
          A.  the raising of seed crops.
          B.  the domestication of animals.
          C.  plow-and-harvest agriculture.
          D.  innovations in transportation and communication.

6.  A society in which a person is unable to move from one status to 
    another is referred to as a(an)
          A.  open society.
          B.  closed society.
          C.  gemeinschaft society.
          D.  gesellschaft society.

7.  A society's set of political structures is known as the 
          A.  state
          B.  nation.
          C.  nation-state.
          D.  government.

8.  The transition form an agrarian to an industrial social order is often
    described as a transition from
          A.  an open society to a closed society.
          B.  gemeinschaft relations to gesellschaft relations.
          C.  secondary structure to primary strucutre.
          D.  a horticultural society to a pastoral society.

9.  A situation in which as tudent must break a date in order to study for
    an exam is an example of
          A.  role conflict.
          B.  role strain.
          C.  role stress.
          D.  none of the above.

10.  The status of black male is an example of an
          A.  acquired status.
          B.  accidental status.
          C.  achieved status.
          D.  ascribed status.

11.  Which of the following are characterized by goal-oriented participation
     and relationships that involve few aspects of members' personalities?
          A.  primary groups
          B.  secondary groups
          C.  territorial groups
          D.  reference groups

12.  A group that consists of people whom one considers to be outside the
     bounds of intimacy is known as
          A.  a primary group.
          B.  a nonterritorial group.
          C.  a social network.
          D.  an out-group.

13.  Sturdies of interaction in small groups have found that the person who 
     initiates the most interactions often
          A.  is the best-liked person in the group.
          B.  gets no attention from the other members of the group.
          C.  comes to be thought of as a leader.
          D.  does not adhere to group norms.

14.  Positions with clearly defined responsibilities that are ordered in a
     hierarchy that constitutes a career ladder are characteristic of a
          A.  bureaucracy.
          B.  territorial community.
          C.  secondary group.
          D.  voluntary association.

15.  In his experiments on obedience to authority, Stanley Milgram found that
     subjects were most likely to obey the experimenter when the "learner" was
          A.  in the same room as the subject.
          B.  in direct proximity to the subject.
          C.  in another room and could not be heard by the subject.
          D.  in another room but could be heard by the subject.

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