Understanding Societies

1.  The functionalist paradigm
A)  focuses on the minute aspects of everyday life.
B)  sees society as a fairly stable system of interrelated parts
C)  tends to have politically radical implications.
D)  focuses on conflict and power
E)  emphasizes the self-interest of many different groups.

2.  In the article “The Code of the Streets,” sociologist Elijah Anderson argues all of the following except:
A)  There are two types of cultural forms in the neighborhood studied:  street and decent.
B)  Most families in the neighborhood were “street” families.
C)  Structural factors such as unemployment create an environment in which street culture
D)  Individuals within the same family may have differing cultural orientations.
E)  All of the above are argued by Anderson.

3.  Which person was the founder of the conflict perspective?
A)  Max Weber
B)  Emile Durkheim
C)  Karl Marx
D)  Auguste Comte
E)  Booker T. Washington

4.  The recognition that all cultures develop their own ways of dealing with the specific demands of their
environments is termed:
A)  cultural differentiation.
B)  cultural imperialism.
C)  cultural relativity.
D)  ethnocentrism.
E)  ethno-imperialism.

5.  In order to develop a good piece of sociological work, which of the following does a sociologist NOT
A)  Challenges the conclusions.
B)  Describes the subject.
C)  Offers a theory.
D)  Sets up the research in a way to ensure that the hypothesis will be proven.
E)  Observes and accumulates facts.

6.  A sociologist finds a causal connection between high family income and good grades on the part of the
children in the family.  In this case the student’s grades are
A)  the dependent variable
B)  the controls
C)  spurious variables.
D)  the constant
E)  the independent variable.

7.  A researcher finds a correlation between drug abuse and dropping out of college.  This finding
A)  that being a member of certain reference groups both inclines one to drug use and
      discourages one from pursuing a college education.
B)  that drug abuse is the independent variable.
C)  that the correlation is spurious.
D)  That there may be a causal link between the two variables.
E)  either that drug abuse causes people to drop out of college, or that drooping out of college
     causes people to use drugs.

8.  The mathematical technique that transforms an absolute number into a proportion of a given total is
known as
A)  frequency distribution
B)  a panel study
C)  path analysis
D)  percent analysis
E)  proportional path analysis

9.  The right that ensures that information will not be passed on to anyone else in a form that can be
traced to the respondent is known as:
A)  the exclusion factor.
B)  constitutional protection.
C)  informed consent.
D)  confidentiality.
E)  full disclosure.

10.  Elijah Anderson used which of the following methods to collect data for his article “The Code of the
A)  survey
B)  fieldwork
C)  content analysis
D)  experiment
E)  available data

11.  A sociologist is interested in finding the effects of homicide on the family life of the surviving family
of the victim.  In order to be able to make a generalization about how such tragedy would affect most
victims, which of the following research designs would be appropriate?
A)  Field experiment
B)  Sample survey
C)  Laboratory experiment
D)  A case study
E)  Public opinion poll

12.  A study of sports preferences of white males between the ages of twenty-eight and thirty-two showed
that lower class males prefer auto racing while upper class males prefer golf.  In this example, which of
the following best explains sports preference?
A)  race
B)  religion
C)  age
D)  social class
E)  gender

13.  Suppose that a researcher finds a correlation between a woman’s interest in women’s liberation and
the likelihood that she is divorced.  This finding would indicate that
A)  there may be a causal correlation between the variables.
B)  the experience of undergoing a divorce causes women to become interested in women’s
C)  women who want to stay married should not get highly involved in the women’s liberation
D)  the correlation is spurious.
E)  women’s liberation has caused an increase in divorces.

14.  The Sherif Study using the autokinetic effect to measure conformity in ambiguous situations was a
A)  content analysis
B)  survey
C)  participant observation study
D)  comparative-historical project
E)  experiment

15.  Culture
A)  is mainly among the educated and wealthy, but less so among the poor.
B)  refers primarily to the abstract and subjective components of society such as art and music.
C)  deals with nonmaterial aspects rather than material goods.
D)  includes all learned ideas, behaviors, and material products found in a society.
E)  refers primarily to the social organization of the society, especially the structural
      interdependence of statuses and roles.

16.  All of the following statements are true about the Internet except which of the following:
A)  The Internet was an experimental network created in the 1960’s by the U.S. Defense
B)  The Internet is owned and operated by the U.S. government but is openly available to anyone
      in the world.
C)  Netscape Navigator is one of several Internet browsers which allow users to access the World
      Wide Web.
D)  The World Wide Web is a collection of documents, called Web Pates, located on the Internet.
E)  All of the above statements are true.

17.  Material culture would include:
A)  the gesture of shaking hands when you meet someone.
B)  the unwritten rules in our society about how men should behave, including the notion that
      men should not cry.
C)  the desk and writing instrument you are currently using, the building you are in right now,
      and the clothes you are wearing.
D)  your religious beliefs.
E)  the American belief in the importance of individualism.

18.  Family, government, education, economics, medicine, and religion are all social
A)  statuses
B)  institutions
C)  counter-cultures
D)  subcultures
E)  roles

19.  Sociologists use which of the following terms to describe the probability that a person who has served
a jail term will commit additional crimes and be jailed again:
A)  backsliding.
B)  recidivism.
C)  recrimination.
D)  retrogression.
E)  revolving door

20.  Researchers are most likely to use random sampling in cases where
A)  respondents are reluctant to answer.
B)  respondents who do answer are likely to lie.
C)  they wish to provide descriptions of how members of a specific group feel about an issue.
D)  they wish to be unobtrusive.
E)  they wish to generalize to a larger population.

21.  Which of the following is an ascribed status?
A)  wife
B)  rock star
C)  college student
D)  white male
E)  prison convict

22.  A coach is in a situation in which his own daughter is on the team.  While she is a good player, she is
not exceptional, and the decision about whether to play her is difficult:  as a father he wants her to be able
to play, but as a coach knows he will receive much hostility from other parents for favoritism if he is not
completely evenhanded in selecting the starting team.  The situation is likely to cause this man
A)  ascribed strain
B)  role conflict
C)  role strain
D)  a conflict between master status and role set
E)  role discontinuity.

23.  The following table is provided in Jeffrey Reiman’s “The Rich Get Richer and the Poor Get Prison: 
Ideology, Class, and Criminal Justice,”

The table illustrates the main idea of the article which is:
A)  Street crime is more harmful to society than white collar crime.
B)  White collar crime is more harmful to society than street crime.
C)  White collar crime is functional for society, although it has some dysfunctional elements.
D)  Street crime is functional for society, although it has some dysfunctional elements.
E)  None of the above statements represent the main idea of Reiman’s article.

24.  Reiko is being indoctrinated into the values, norms, and roles of her society, including gender
expectations.  This process profoundly influences her sense of self and her aspirations.  Sociologists call
this process
A)  genetic engineering
B)  behaviorism
C)  socialization.
D)  acclimating to human nature
E)  ascribing.

25.  Studies of children raised in near total isolation lend support to the idea that
A)  except for learning to speak a language, the intellectual and emotional development of
       isolated children is only minimally impaired.
B)  the first two years of life determine the type of later development.
C)  physical isolation contributes to growth of children into Piaget’s concrete operational stage of
       intellectual development.
D)  intellectual and social development requires interaction with other people.
E)  children can develop relatively normally even without human interaction.

26.  Prisons, the military, concentration camps, and mental hospitals are all referred to by sociologists as
A)  ethnomethodological corporations.
B)  total institutions
C)  dramaturgical desocializers.
D)  anticipatory structures.
E)  hidden curriculum centers.

27.  According to Milgram’s research on people’s willingness to conform to the directives of authority
A)  most people are surprisingly resistant to authority.
B)  most people are brutal and sadistic.
C)  only people with severs personality disorders were willing to follow orders when they thought
      someone might be injured by the experiment.
D)  most people tend to follow orders if they believe the authority is a legitimate one, even if the
      orders have horrible consequences for someone.
E)  Americans are more likely to balk at obeying authority than are people from other nations.

28.  Deviant behavior
A)  is found mainly among the poor, and less so among the educated and wealthy.
B)  refers only to violations of criminal laws.
C)  is pretty much the same in all societies.
D)  is behavior that violates social norms and values shared by most people in a particular
E)  refers to actions that run counter to deeply held beliefs and not to violations of trivial norms.

29.  The single most important factor in determining which research method the sociologist will use is
A)  the amount of money available for the project.
B)  the group paying for the research.
C)  the type of question being asked.
D)  whether the results will be published.
E)  None of the above.

30.  According to Merton’s theory of structural strain, if a person accepts society’s goals but rejects the
means of achieving them and adopts a deviant means, he/she is employing:
A)  conformity
B)  innovation
C)  rebellion
D)  ritualism
E)  retreatism

31.  Taking Sides (Issue #3) asks the question:  Does Rap Music Contribute to Violent Crime?  In Dennis
Martin’s “The Music of Murder,” he argues all of the following except:
A)  Rap music is a culmination of the musical course charted by Elvis Presley.
B)  Our job as a society is to address the causes of the anger expressed in music like Ice T’s Cop
      Killer, not to suppress its articulation. 
C)  Music is a tool being used to destabilize our democratic society.
D)  Music has the power to soothe the savage beast and to stir violent emotions in man.
E)  All of the above are argued by Martin.

32.  You are flunking two classes at school and your love life is not going well.  You just stay in your
room all day and night; you don’t go to classes, you don’t go out, and you don’t talk to friends.  You are
exhibiting a temporary state of
A)  ritualism.
B)  retreatism.
C)  conformity.
D)  rebellion.
E)  innovation.

33.  In the article “The Code of the Streets,” sociologist Elijah Anderson argues that “decent” families
have particular characteristics which differentiate them from “street” families.  Which of the following are
NOT found in “decent” families.
A)  teach children to respect authority
B)  have no fear of death and will defend their “respect” with life if necessary
C)  have a deep and encompassing sense of community
D)  teach their children the codes of the street as survival strategies, but not as norms for living.
E)  All of the above statements are argued by Anderson as  characteristics of decent families.

34.  Law represents the interests of the elites in a society.  Therefore, offenses committed by the upper
classes are treated more leniently than offenses committed by the lower classes.  This argument
A)  structural-strain theory.
B)  class dominance theory
C)  labeling theory
D)  differential association theory
E)  structural contradiction theory.

35.  If the professor defines a sociology class as comprised of lazy students who are just in the class for an
easy grade, and the students begin to accept this definition and allow it to affect their attitudes and
behaviors, they have been exposed to the
A)  structural strain theory
B)  class dominance theory
C)  labeling theory
D)  differential association theory
E)  structural contradiction theory.

36.  The emergence of industrial society can be best described as a transition from
A)  centralized to decentralized societies.
B)  gemeinschaft to gesellschaft.
C)  gesellschaft to gemeinschaft.
D)  urban to folk societies.
E)  folk to urban societies.

37.  A prison reform commission argued against sending first offenders to prison.  It was thought that the
time in prison would cause more crime, in that the first offenders were likely to learn more about crime
and become more involved in it.  This argument is based on
A)  structural strain theory
B)  class dominance theory
C)  labeling theory
D)  differential association theory
E)  structural contradiction theory.

38.  Which of the following characteristics distinguishes a society from a population?
A)  It is a set of individuals that can be counted.
B)  It is organized in a cooperative manner.
C)  It is made up of human beings.
D)  All of the above.
E)  None of the above

39.  The term “empirical” refers to
A)  carefully gathered, unbiased data regarding social conditions and behavior.
B)  the application of moral principles to social policy.
C)  the application of scientific methods to the study of moral problems.
D)  Using the techniques of investigative journalism to analyze social problems.
E)  All of the above.

40.  The number of statuses in human societies is
A)  limited to approximately twenty.
B)  determined when the society is established.
C)  usually under 1000.
D)  infinite.
E)  somewhere between 1000 and 2000.

41.  The first Black sociologist to gain worldwide recognition was
A)  Jacob Riis.
B)  Jane Addams.
C)  Ernest Burgess.
D)  W.E.B. DuBois.
E)  Langston Hughes

42.  In Taking Sides (Issue #1) “Is Crime Functional?,” Emile Durkheim argues all of the following
A)  Crime is necessary and useful for society.
B)  No society without crime has ever existed, therefore crime is normal.
C)  Crime occurs when there is a disjuncture between a culture’s goals and the institutional
      means to achieve those goals.
D)  Crime is normal because no society without crime has ever existed.
E)  All of the above are argued by Durkheim

43.  The idea that language determines the possibility for thought and action in a culture is known as the 
A)  linguistic-relativity hypothesis.
B)  sociobiological hypothesis.
C)  cross-cultural perspective.
D)  ethnolinguistic perspective.
E)  Genetic theory

44.  The term “social structure” refers to the fact that social relationships
A)  are characterized by recurring patterns of behavior.
B)  are made up of any set of individuals.
C)  require constant monitoring for compliance.
D)  are narrowly defined and rigidly enforced.
E)  all of the above describe social structure.

45.  When a smaller, less powerful society is able to preserve the major features of its culture even after
prolonged contact with another society, which of the following is said to have occurred?
A)  acculturation
B)  assimilation
C)  accommodation
D)  resistance
E)  all of the above

46.  For years, Professor Boren has concentrated her research efforts in sociology on the relationships
between industrialized and third world nations.  Her work focuses on which of the following levels of
social reality (or levels of analysis)?
A)  Macro
B)  Meso
C)  Micro
D)  International
E)  None of the above.

47.  The individual's conception of the expectations of society and its demands is termed the
A)  ego 
B)  superego
C)  significant other
D)  generalized other.
E)  none of the above

48.  Socialization that occurs when the child leaves the family for schooling and comes under the
influence of adults and peers outside the household is known as
A)  primary socialization.
B)  secondary socialization.
C)  adult socialization
D)  resocialization.
E)  none of the above.

49.  Which of the following is NOT a type of sociometric diagram
A)  basic group diagrams.
B)  diagrams that indicate the valence of group bonds.
C)  sociograms.
D)  all of the above.
E)  none of the above.

50.  Mead’s theory of socialization as role-taking has three stages, including all of the following
A)  game
B)  latency
C)  play
D)  preparatory


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