Review Sheet - Exam #1 Sociology 131
CHAPTER 1 - SOCIOLOGY, THE SCIENCE OF SOCIETY
How does it differ from the other social sciences?
What are the three levels of social reality that sociologists focus on?
What are the three theoretical paradigms (or perspectives) in sociology? For each theoretical paradigm, be able to explain 1) what is the structure of the argument 2) what are the three guiding questions and 3) what level of social reality does each one focus on?
Who was the “founding father” of conflict theory?
What is the research process?
What is critical thinking?
What is the sociological imagination and how does it relate to the research process?
What is “empirical data” and what role does it have in sociological research?
What methods do sociologists use to conduct research? What are the strengths and weaknesses of each approach? What determines which method a researcher will use?
What is random sampling? Why is it important?
What is a dependent variable, an independent variable, an hypothesis?
What are the two types of questions that sociologists ask?
What are the two types of analysis conducted by sociologists and how do they differ?
What do privacy, confidentiality, and informed consent refer to and what role do they play in the research process?
What is the difference between correlation and causation? Does one imply the other?
How do you read a table (i.e., what do you look at first, what are frequency distributions and percent analysis)?
***Deborah Morley’s “Getting Started With Computers” What is the Internet? Who owns it? What is the World Wide Web? What is a Uniform Resource Locator? What is a search engine? What is Netscape navigator
CHAPTER 2 - CULTURE
What is ethnocentrism? What is cultural relativity?
What is the linguistic relativity hypothesis?
What are the three concepts used to explain the spread of civilizations around the world? How do they differ from each other?
***Elijah Anderson’s “Code of the Streets” What is the main idea of Elijah Anderson’s article “The Code of the Streets”? What does it tell us about how cultures emerge? What does it tell us about subcultures and/or countercultures in American society? What distinctions does Anderson make between the families that he observed in a Chicago neighborhood? What methodology did Anderson use to collect his data?
CHAPTER 3 SOCIAL STRUCTURE AND INTERACTION
What is the difference between society and a population?
What is social structure?
How can you differentiate between Institutions, Groups, Statuses, and Roles?
What do the terms Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft refer to? Why are they important in the study of sociology?
What is role conflict? What is role strain? What is the difference between the two?
What is an ascribed status? What is an achieved status? What is a master status?
What is sociometry and what is it used for?
CHAPTER 4 - SOCIALIZATION
CHAPTER 4 - WHAT IS SOCIALIZATION?
What do studies of feral children tell us about the relationship between biological capabilities and socialization (i.e., nature vs. nurture)?
What is Mead’s theory of how individuals become a “self”? What are the three stages of his theory? What are the importance of role taking, significant others, and the generalized other in developing a self? What are agencies of socialization?
What are total institutions?
What is conformity?
What were the main findings of the Sherif, Asch, and Milgram experiments and what did they tell us about the conditions under which we will conform?
CHAPTER 5 - DEVIANCE AND SOCIAL CONTROL
What is crime?
What is Robert Merton’s theory of why individuals commit deviant behavior? Explain his typology.
How do conflict theorists explain deviance? What is the emphasis?
How do Interactionists explain deviance? What is their emphasis? What is differential association? What is labeling theory?
What is recidivism? Why is it important when considering the effectiveness of prisons?
***Article: “Is Crime Always Functional?” What is the functionalist explanation of deviance (as represented by Durkheims position in this article)? How does Moynihan critique the functionalist perspective?
***Article: “Does Rap Music Contribute to Violent Crime?” What is the conflict explanation of deviance and crime (as represented by Reiman)? How do Wilson and Herrnstein critique the conflict perspective?
***Article: “Does Rap Music Contribute to Violent Crime?” What is the interactionist perspective of deviance and crime and how is it represented in this article