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Chapter 9:
Parents and Children


Test Items

True /False Questions

1.Current trends in fertility have been unaffected by the legalization of abortion in 1973.

2.Pronatalism is the high value society places on having children.

3.In general, the higher the woman's family income, the fewer children she will have.

4.The decision to remain childless voluntarily is usually negotiated between partners prior to marriage.

5.The majority of mothers of U.S. children are in the paid workforce.

6.Multigenerational households have been declining steadily since the turn of the century.

7.Research evidence indicates that children of gay and lesbian parents develop normally.

8.Power relationships in marriages typically become more matriarchal after the addition of children to the family.

9.The birth of a child usually results in an improvement in marital satisfaction.

10.The Freudian model for parenting argues that factors outside the family are influential in the socialization of children.

Multiple-Choice Questions

1.In general, since 1800 the fertility rate in the U.S. has
c.remained the same.
d.fluctuated drastically every five years.

2.According to the text, which of the following factors is not related to current low fertility rates?
a.Women's career considerations.
b.The legalization of abortion in 1973.
c.The divorce rate.
d.The decline of religion in the U.S.

3.The number of children in a family is
a.negatively related to intellectual outcomes for children. Children from small families score higher on intelligence tests than children from large families.
b.usually greater in families with well-educated spouses.
c.insignificant in determining marital satisfaction of parents.
d.all of the above.

4.A consequence of delayed parenting is
a.the lessening of parenting influence, given the likelihood that older parents have established careers.
b.the rise in divorce rates among middle-aged couples.
c.a large proportion of parents do not live to see their grandchildren.
d.lower fertility rates.

5.What explains differential fertility rates in the U.S. by social class?
a.For highly educated, high income couples, the costs of children are seen to exceed the benefits.
b.Educated families value children more than less educated families.
c.U.S. welfare policy makes it attractive for poor women to have more children.
d.All of the above.

6.According to the text's discussion of race and fertility,
a.Whites have higher fertility rates than blacks.
b.Hispanics have the lowest fertility rate among U.S. racial groups.
c.parenthood, for poor individuals, is an emblem of status and identity not available through economic avenues.
d.individuals with fewer financial resources marry later, thus delaying the onset of childbearing.

7.According to the text, childlessness is most often a source of stigma for
c.dual-career spouses.
d.all of the above.

8.The relatively high fertility in the Hispanic population can be explained as a result of
a.traditional values of the Catholic Church.
b.low rates of educational attainment among many Hispanic ethnicities.
c.economic disadvantages.
d.all of the above.

9.According to recent research, the percent of childless women correlated with the rising incidence of poverty.
b.has increased in recent years.
c.has declined in recent years.
d.depends primarily on conscious choices made before marriage.

10.The most common model of family composition in the contemporary U.S. is a
a.dual-earner family with children.
b.a single adult and dependent children.
c.a breadwinner husband, stay at home wife, and dependent children.
d.a multigenerational household.

11.All of the following are benefits of parenthood except
a.parents can live vicariously through their children.
b.improved financial stability for all family members.
c.symbolic immortality.
d.enhanced status of parents among kin, colleagues, and the community.

12.According to Belsky and Kelly, what percentage of couples experienced an improvement in their relational with the birth of a child?

13.Booth and Amato's research on adult children of traditional and nontraditional parents found that
a.children of traditional parents were more likely to get married and to parent.
b.children of nontraditional parents were more likely to get married and to parent.
c.there were no differences in psychological well-being between these groups of no children.
d.children of traditional parents had lower educational attainment.

14.Which of the following describes the typical division of labor in childbearing?
a.Mothers do most of the primary caretaking while fathers take major responsibility for arrangements such as doctor appointments.
b.Fathers and mothers share caretaking and other responsibilities nearly equally.
c.Mothers do most of the caretaking and are responsible for other arrangements as well.
d.None of the above.

15.Marital power relationships frequently change after the birth of children. These changes are most often related to
a.increased financial dependence of women on their husbands.
b.the likelihood that contemporary parents will share the duties of parenthood equally.
c.women's dominance of the childrearing process. relinquishing patriarchal power.

16.Recent research on the effects of children on marriages indicates that
a.couples tend to interact based upon role obligations rather than as intimates. continue to view their spouses as the primary caregivers, even when they are involved in childcare.
c.marital power relationships tend to become more patriarchal.
d.all of the above.

17.According to the Freudian model of parental influence over children,
a.parents' ability to shape their children is severely limited by the exposure of children to a wide range of influences in their broad social environment.
b.parents and children have an equal amount of influence over one another.
c.parents can easily damage children by their actions during the first five years of life.
d.all of the above.

18.A major problem with both Freudian and behaviorist models of child development is
a.the stress placed on institutional factors.
b.they overemphasize parental influence over the child-rearing process.
c.the heavy emphasis placed on structural variables as socializers.
d.the tendency to blame children for their own personality disorders.

19.The addition of a child changes the social organization of the family by
a.increasing gender role segregation.
b.diminishing male authority.
c.dramatically improving marital satisfaction.
d.involving men equally in "emotion work".

20.Research on children in families with nontraditional gender roles finds
a.these children score significantly lower on measures of psychological well-being than children in traditional families.
b.educational attainment to be significantly lower than for children in traditional families.
c.the effects on children are not adverse.
d.these children are likely to be voluntarily childless as adults.

21.The influence of parents on their children is diminished by a number of external variables, the most crucial of which is
a.the media.
c.children's peers. class.

22.First born children, in comparison with later born children,
a.respond more to the influence of peers.
b.tend to be more achievement-oriented.
c.are more likely to remain childless in adulthood.
d.have a tendency to rebel against the values of their parents.

23.The approximate percentage of families headed by a single parent is
d.None of the above.

24. The increase in one parent households is a consequence of the higher rate of out-of-wedlock births and
a.increasing fertility rates.
b.the decreasing availability of abortions.
c.increased adoption rates among single men.
d. high divorce rates.

25. Comparative research on children raised at home and those attending day care centers suggests that
a.quality of care rather than the relationship of the caregiver to the child is the most important predictor of positive child development. care children are more likely to become socially disruptive adults. care children are low achievers upon entering school.
d.children raised at home have underdeveloped social skills.

26. According to sociologist Cherlin, it is likely that the most detrimental aspect of father absence in a single parent family is
a. lack of male presence.
b. lack of a disciplinarian.
c. lack of a masculine role model.
d. lack of a male income.

27. Single parents experience which of the following sources of strain?
a. Responsibility overload.
b. Task overload.
c. Emotional overload.
d. All of the above.