Chapter 8 Review
Chapter 8 Review: The Social Construction of Intimacy

True/False Questions

1. Dating is of interest to sociologists because it is a process that has changed very little over the course of U.S. history.

2. The higher the socioeconomic status of U.S. families, the more likely it is that parental control will play a major role in mate selection.

3. Hypogamy refers to marriage with someone from a higher social class than one’s own.

4. Individuals generally select mates whose ethnicity, education, and age is similar to their own.

5. Interracial marriages declined substantially during the decade of the 1980’s.

6. The “principle of least interest” suggests that as society modernizes, parents are no longer concerned about selecting mates for their children.

7. Sociologists view sexuality as a social construction because it varies across time, space, and the life of any individual.

8. The number of new AIDS cases has declined in recent years.

9. Teen childbearing is at the highest rate ever in U.S. history.

10. Sociologists suggest early sexual activity among poor youth is a substitute for other non-attainable forms of gratification.

Multiple Choice Questions

1. The text’s approach to the subject of intimacy assumes which of the following?
a. Interpersonal communication should be the focus
of the study of intimacy.
b. Because the experience of intimacy is highly
personal, social forces have little to do with
this subject.
c. Macro level forces and cultural ideals shape
our experience of intimacy.
d. Intimate behaviors are unchanging over time.

2. Which of the following presents a fundamental difficulty with intimate relations in modern society?
a. Women are no longer willing to the “emotion work” to sustain intimate relations.
b. The two partners must provide all the supports to each other that kin and community once provided.
c. The high rate of heterogamous relationships.
d. All of the above.

3. Economic and social changes over the history of the U.S. have
a. increased the individual’s need for intimate relationships.
b. increased men’s need for the romantic aspects of intimate relationships.
c. had no visible effect on intimate relationships.
d. made intimate relationships an encumbrance.

4. Using Goffman’s theater metaphor, intimate relationships
a. require “frontstage behavior.”
b. are becoming increasingly scripted due to societal bureaucratization.
c. are necessary for assortive mating to occur.
d. permit an escape from formal role-playing.

5. In the premodern U.S., the courtship and mate selection process for young people was controlled by
a. organized religion.
b. the young people themselves.
c. parents and kin.
d. states’ legal systems.

6. According to the text, rising divorce rates in the U.S. can be explained as a response to
a. the increasing commercialization of love.
b. the sexual revolution.
c. one partner falling short of providing the amount of intimacy required by the other.
d. the proliferation of pornography.

7. The decline of parental infuence over children’s courting behavior is attributed to
a. urbanization and industrialization.
b. the increase in employment rates of married women with children.
c. ever-increasing rates of adolescent labor force participation.
d. general moral decline.

8. Which of the following phenomena represents a major break with the past in terms of the mate selection process?
a. Hypergamy
b. Formal engagement.
c. Dating.
d. Arranged marriage.

9. Dating and courtship behaviors vary with social class in which of the following ways?
a. The higher the class, the more control parents have over the dating activities of their children.
b. The lower the class, the more likely are youth to use structured activities for their cross-sex encounters.
c. Middle class youth have less freedom of choice than their upper class counterparts.
d. All of the above.

10. According to the text, confusion in contemporary male-female relationships is often a result of
a. prolonged adolescence.
b. the emergence of dating.
c. confusion between traditional and new gender role expectations.
d. loss of parental control over mate selection.

11. Waller’s “principle of least interest” suggests that
a. men are less interested in the material aspects of relationships than woman.
b. upper class individuals are less interested in marriage in early adulthood than individuals from other classes.
c. people of color are less interested in marriage than White people.
d. control of a relationship rests with the person who has less to lose if it fails.

12. The dating and courtship patters of people of color
a. tend to follow the patterns of lower class individuals.
b. are related to their patterns of economic and professional success.
c. include earlier sexual experiences than for White youth.
d. all of the above.

13. The tendency of individuals to select marriage partners with social characteristics similar to their own is called
a. hypogamy.
b. demography.
c. heterogamy.
d. homogamy.

14. The mate selection process for Black women in the contemporary U.S.
a. is limited due to the undersupply of young Black men.
b. follows the general female pattern of marrying men of higher status.
c. results in nearly identical marriage rates at age 20 for Black and Hispanic women.
d. all of the above.

15. Research on the role of schools in the process of mate selection has found that
a. neighborhood schools promote cross-class relationships because they are no longer homogeneous by social class.
b. the restrictive membership policies of fraternities and sororities discourage heterogeneous dating experiences among college youth.
c. tuition differentials that formerly produced intraclass patterns of courtship have been eradicated by financial aid programs.
d. there are no significant relationships between schools and mate selection.

16. A woman’s marriage to a man of higher status is called
a. assortive mating.
b. hypogamy.
c. hypergamy.
d. demography.

17. The text makes which of the following points about human sexuality?
a. Sexuality is a power system.
b. Sexuality exhibits variability across time and space.
c. Sexuality is a social construction.
d. All of the above.

18. The set of beliefs and practices that define heterosexuality as the only natural and permissible orm of sexuality has been labeled
a. healthy heterosexuality.
b. compulsory heterosexuality.
c. pathological sexuality.
d. atomistic sexuality.

19. The text does not discuss which of the following as a factor that contributed to the transformation of sexuality in the U.S.?
a. The rising age of marriage.
b. The decline of organized religion.
c. Women’s growing autonomy.
d. New birth control methods.

20. An important factor contributing to sexual permissiveness is
a. commercial advertising.
b. prolonged adolescence.
c. sex surveys.
d. all of the above.

21. Which of the following is a major finding of the 1992 National Health and Social Life Survey?
a. Adultery occurs more often than previously thought.
b. Social networks shape the sexual choices people make.
c. Sexual partners are generally found in a random manner.
d. The rate of homosexuality is higher than Kinsey reported.

22. The 1992 National Health and Social Life Survey used which survey method?
a. Face-to-face interviews.
b. Telephone interviews.
c. Mailed survey.
d. A combination of all of the above.

23. Which of the following reflects the current status of AIDS in the U.S.?
a. The number of new AIDS cases continues to rise every year.
b. The number of new AIDS cases has risen for women and people of color.
c. AIDS will probably disappear in five to ten years.
d. AIDS is not a serious threat to any segment of the population.

24. Which of the following describes the change since 1900 in rates of premarital sex?
a. Premarital sex has increased for both women and men.
b. Premarital sex has increased for men but not for women.
c. Premarital sex has increased for women but not for men.
d. The level of premarital sexual activity has changed very little this century.

25. Which of the following describes teen child-bearing in the U.S.?
a. Teen child bearing is at the highest rate ever in the U.S.
b. The marriage rate for teen mothers is increasing.
c. The U.S. has the highest rate of teen child-bearing among industrialized nations.
d. All of the above.

26. Research on teen parents suggests that
a. teen mothers are irrational and irresponsible.
b. teen mothers are as likely as other teens to finish high school.
c. extended families often ostracize single teen mothers.
d. parenthood among Black teen mothers may be a rational reaction to poor economic opportunities.

27. According to the text, differences between men and women in the meanings and experiences of intimacy are largely shaped by
a. status differences between women and men in a society that is stratified by gender.
b. physiological differences between women and men.
c. psychological factors.
d. women’s maternal instincts.

28. The double standard that men be more sexually competent than women
a. perpetuates sexual ignorance.
b. prevents men from seeking help for sexual problems.
c. prevents many men from discussing sex with their partners.
d. all of the above.

29. Of the following, which category of young people tends to be overrepresented among the sexually active?
a. Upper class youth.
b. College students.
c. Poverty-level youth.
d. Children from dual-earner families.

30. Which of the following generalizations about gender and intimacy is accurate?
a. Women stress the emotional relationship.
b. Men stress the sexual aspects of the relationship.
c. Gender differences in adults reflect the socialization of boys and girls into very different sexual expectations and meanings.
d. All of the above.