Cumulative Exam Review











Sociology: The Science of Society

What is sociology? 
How does it differ from the other social sciences? 
What are the three levels of social reality that sociologists focus on? 
What are the three theoretical paradigms (or perspectives) in sociology? For each theoretical 
paradigm, be able to explain 1) what is the structure of the argument 2) what are the three 
guiding questions and 3) what level of social reality does each one focus on? 
Who was the “founding father” of conflict theory? 
What is the research process? 
What is critical thinking? 
What is the sociological imagination and how does it relate to the research process? 
What is “empirical data” and what role does it have in sociological research? 
What methods do sociologists use to conduct research? What are the strengths and 
weaknesses of each approach? What determines which method a researcher will use? 
What is random sampling? Why is it important? 
What is a dependent variable, an independent variable, an hypothesis? 
What are the two types of questions that sociologists ask? 
What are the two types of analysis conducted by sociologists and how do they differ? 
What do privacy, confidentiality, and informed consent refer to and what role do they play in 
the research process? 
What is the difference between correlation and causation? Does one imply the other? 
How do you read a table (i.e., what do you look at first, what are frequency distributions and 
percent analysis)? 
***Deborah Morley’s “Getting Started With Computers” What is the Internet? Who owns it?
 What is the World Wide Web?
What is a Uniform Resource Locator? What is a search engine? What is Netscape navigator? 

Chapter Review



What are the three components of culture? What are examples of each one? (Remember what 
I stressed in class that you need and don’t need to know about the Table on Page 34). 
What is ethnocentrism? What is cultural relativity? 
What is the linguistic relativity hypothesis? 
What are the three concepts used to explain the spread of civilizations around the world? 
How do they differ from each other? 
***Elijah Anderson’s “Code of the Streets” What is the main idea of Elijah Anderson’s 
article “The Code of the Streets”?
What does it tell us about how cultures emerge? What does it tell us about subcultures 
and/or countercultures in American society? What distinctions does Anderson make between 
the families that he observed in a Chicago neighborhood? What methodology did Anderson 
use to collect his data? 

Chapter Review


Social Structure and Interaction

What is the difference between society and a population? 
What is social structure? 
How can you differentiate between Institutions, Groups, Statuses, and Roles? 
What do the terms Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft refer to? Why are they important in the study of sociology? 
What is role conflict? What is role strain? What is the difference between the two? 
What is an ascribed status? What is an achieved status? What is a master status? 
What is sociometry and what is it used for? 

Chapter Outline



What do studies of feral children tell us about the relationship between biological capabilities 
and socialization (i.e., nature vs. nurture)? 
What is Mead’s theory of how individuals become a “self”? What are the three stages of his 
theory? What are the importance of role taking, significant others, and the generalized other 
in developing a self? What are agencies of socialization? 
What are total institutions? 
What is conformity? 
What were the main findings of the Sherif, Asch, and Milgram experiments and what did they
tell us about the conditions under which we will conform? 

Chapter Outline


Deviance and Social Control

What is deviance? 
What is crime? 
What is Robert Merton’s theory of why individuals commit deviant behavior? Explain his typology. 
How do conflict theorists explain deviance? What is the emphasis? 
How do Interactionists explain deviance? What is their emphasis? What is differential 
association? What is labeling theory? 
What is recidivism? Why is it important when considering the effectiveness of prisons? 
***Article: “Is Crime Always Functional?” What is the functionalist explanation of deviance 
(as represented by Durkheims position in this article)? How does Moynihan critique the 
functionalist perspective? 
***Article: “Does Rap Music Contribute to Violent Crime?” What is the conflict explanation 
of deviance and crime (as represented by Reiman)? How do Wilson and Herrnstein critique 
the conflict perspective? 
***Article: “Does Rap Music Contribute to Violent Crime?” What is the interactionist 
perspective of deviance and crime and how is it represented in this article?
Chapter Review
Lecture Outline:  What is Deviance?
Lecture Outline:  Crime and Deviance
EXAM #1   Social Class Inequalities  
What is social stratification?
Where do systems of stratification originate?
What are the three components of stratification?
What is the difference between and open and closed system?
What are the different types of social mobility?
What is the difference between caste and class systems?
What is an ascribed status?  What is an achieved status?
What are status groups?  What are status symbols?
What are life chances?
What social forces produce stratification?
Where do most people in the nonindustrial world today live (i.e., urban, suburban, or rural areas)?
What social institutions increased in importance as a result of the Industrial  Revolution?
What factors determine your position in the stratification system?
What is ideology?  How does it function in the process of socialization?  
     Why do people accept their place in society?  What different types of ideologies exist?
What are deference and demeanor?  Why are they important and how do they link the
     macro and micro levels?
What is power?  What two types of power exist?
What happened in the French Revolution and why was it important?
What are the characteristics of capitalism?
What was the “great transformation”?
What are the classes in society according to Karl Marx?  Which class is the 
     largest?  What are the relative size of the classes?  Who is the “reserve army”?  
     What do the terms “objective class” and “subjective class” mean?  What is class 
     consciousness?  What is false consciousness?  What is a ‘classless’ society?
How does Weber’s view of stratification differ from Marx?  How are people stratified
    in society?
What are the three theoretical perspectives in sociology?  What are the three 
    assumptions they make about the social world?  What are the guiding questions 
    of each perspective?  How does functionalism explain inequality?  How does 
    conflict theory explain inequality?  How does interactionism explain inequality?
What are the consequences of the emergence of a world economic system?
Where do the majority of the poor live? Who are the working poor?  What effects does
        poverty have on children?  What are the differences between welfare myths and
Lecture Outline:  Functionalist Explanations of Inequality
Lecture Outline:  Conflict Explanations of Inequality

Race and Ethnicity

What is race?  What is ethnicity?  How are they similar and different?
What is the social construction of race?
What are the main types of intergroup relations?
What is racism?  What is prejudice?
What is stereotyping, what is scapegoating?
What structural factors account for the inequalities in Black and White wealth?
What is institutional discrimination?
What is the difference between the average Black and White family income?
Lecture Notes

Sex and Gender

What is the nature v. nurture debate and how does it apply to sex and gender?
What is the difference between sex and what is gender?
What are the functional, interactionist, and conflict perspectives on the division of labor in the household?
What is partriarchy and how does it function as an ideology to influence individuals attitudes and behavior? 
What is sexism?
What are the American conceptions of ‘masculine' and ‘feminine' behavior?
What is the difference between men and womens median income?  Is there a difference?
What event in history propelled many women into the workforce?
What are the reasons that we see an income differentials between men and women?
What factors are narrowing the gender gap in earnings?
What are pink collar occupations?
What is the glass ceiling?
What is the second shift?  How is it a micro-level reflection of macro-level stratification?
Lecture Notes


Social Change, Collective Behavior and Social Movements

What is social change and why does it occur?
What are social movements?  What are the different types of social movements?
What does social change ultimately result from?
What is collective behavior?
When do social movements occur?